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Commercial Poultry Bologna using MDM

Posted By: Joe Ames
Date: Wednesday, November 29, 2000 at 3:10 p.m.


AFTER FRANKS and wieners, the second most popular sausage item manufactured in the United States is bologna. Mechanically deboned poultry (MDP), either chicken or turkey, can be used to produce a bologna that is tasty, nutritious and economical. Following is a typical formulation that can be used for poultry bologna:

Formulation for Poultry Bologna 100 lbs.
Using mechanically deboned poultry
(chicken meat or turkey meat)

2 1/2lbs.salt
2 lbs. corn syrup (either liquid or solids)
6 oz. sodium phosphates
4 oz. curing salt (6.25 percent sodium nitrite)
7/8 oz. sodium erythorbate
appropriate seasonings

Either fresh or frozen MDP can be used to manufacture poultry bologna. If fresh MDP is used in the formulation, it should be purchased with two percent salt and one-half of the allowable sodium nitrite added to it at the time of deboning. Fresh MDP should be stored at 32-36F and used within three days of deboning.
If frozen MDP is used it will need to be coarse-ground through a frozen meat grinder or run through a flaker or chopper that can handle frozen blocks of meat. If possible it is helpful to temper the frozen blocks of MDP in a 36F cooler for several days prior to use. Flaking frozen MDP into combo bins the day before it is to be used allows the frozen meat to soften slightly. (Make sure that the combo bins of flaked, frozen MDP are held under refrigeration. Do not hold them at room temperature.) Generally, frozen MDP should be used within 30-45 days of deboning. Long-term storage of frozen MDP may result in the development of off-flavors.
When using fresh MDP, place it in a chopper, start chopping, add the sodium phosphates, and chop for one minute.
After chopping in the sodium phosphate, add the remaining salt and curing salt (remember that fresh MDP already has two percent salt and 50 percent of the allowable sodium nitrite) and the seasonings, and chop for three additional minutes. Now add the remaining non-meat ingredients and chop until the mixture reaches 42 -44F.
When using all frozen MDP, it is often difficult to achieve a temperature of 42 -44F in the chopper without overchopping. It is usually best, regardless of temperature, to limit chopping time to 15 minutes.
After the product has been chopped it should be run through an emulsifier to give the finished product a smooth, creamy texture. Ideally, temperature out of the emulsifier should be 50-52F. Product processed at this temperature should be very stable; however, a temperature of 50F out of the emulsifier is often difficult to achieve when using all frozen MDP.
After the bologna is emulsified, it should be stuffed into large-diameter fibrous casings and processed in the smokehouse to an internal temperature of 160F. USDA regulations require that products of this type be processed to 155 F; however, by processing to a higher temperature, 160F internal, the product will be micmbiologically cleaner and should have a longer shelf life.
Often poultry bologna manufactured from MDP contains no added water in the formulation because of the high moisture content of the MDP. If water is added it is usually at a low level (10 percent). If water is used in a formulation containing frozen MDP the water temperature should be 100-110F. This will help to increase the temperature of the meat block in the chopper.
Sometimes poultry bologna has a tendency to have a dry mouthfeel and rubbery texture. This is usually due to the low fat content of the finished product. Following are two alternate meat blocks that can be used and that will result in a finished product with a higher fat content.

Alternate Meat Block A
80 lbs. MDP
20 lbs. pork trim (20 percent lean)

In this meat block the pork fat will give the finished product a juicy texture and mouthfeel.

Alternate Meat Block B
90 lbs. MDP
10 lbs. chicken or turkey skin emulsion

In this formulation the skin emulsion is made from 66 percent skin, 27 percent water and 7 percent milk protein. Preparation of a pre-stabilized skin emulsion minimizes the incidence of fatting-out in the finished product.

Thanks to Dr. Joseph C. Cordray and
Dr. Dale L. Huffman, Profrssor of Meat Science at Auburn University.

Smokehouse Schedule for Poultry Bologna

Dry Wet Relative Smoke
Time Bulb Bulb Humidity Dampers (Optional)
2hrs. 140F 0F Open Off
2 hrs. 160 125 36% Closed On
2 hrs.(1) 185 150 40% Closed Off
15 min. Steam cook at 185 (2)
Cold shower 30 minutes

1 Hold at this setting until internal product temperature reaches 150 to 152F
2 Hold at this setting until internal product temperature reaches 160 F


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